The Macedonian Succession Wars, more commonly referred to as the Wars of the Diadochi, were a series of conflicts fought among the former companions and generals of Alexander the Great after his death, from 322 to 281 BCE. By the end of Alexander's life, these influential and powerful figures were promised, by virtue of their ranks as well as their deeds and personal relationships with their king, positions of power and prestige that only Alexander himself or his heir could grant them. However, Alexander's son was not yet born, and his brother had a mental disability that made him unsuitable to inherit Alexander's empire. As a result, Alexander's generals had to appoint themselves to the positions they coveted, and without a legitimate or capable figure of authority to lead them, they eventually either acted on their ambitions and lust for power or defended themselves against belligerent rivals and former brothers-in-arms. This ultimately led to the disintegration of Alexander's empire. Notable figures during this period include Craterus, Seleucus, Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Eumenes, Pyrrhus and many more.
The Punic Wars outline a period characterised by three separate conflicts opposing Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE. The casus belli for the first war was hegemony over Sicily and the casus belli of the following two wars was hegemony over the Mediterranean Sea. Rome won all three wars, even though both Rome and Carthage losses were colossal. Despite this detriment, the conclusion of the Punic Wars laid the foundation of the Roman Empire. Notable figures during this period include Hannibal Barca, Scipio Africanus, Gaius Marius, Xanthippus and many more.
The Three Kingdoms of China is a period marked by intense civil and military conflicts, as well as radical socio-political reforms. It can be divided into three phases: the Fall of the Han Dynasty from 184 to 220, the Rise of Three Kingdoms from 220 to 263, and the Fall of the Three Kingdoms from 263 to 280. After decades of civil war and widespread government corruption and neglect, warlords began to rise to prominence and to pursue their ambitions to the detriment of the Han government, ultimately leading to its fall. Notable figures during this period include Cao Cao, Sun Quan, Liu Bei, Sima Yi, Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, and many more.
The Hundred Years' War is a bloody chapter of England and France's history punctuated with many wars opposing them and during which England, first, attempted to claim France's throne, then to keep their French holdings and finally, after loosing most of them, to retake these holdings. This period saw the use of cannons for the first time in European and Mediterranean history and the decline of the medievalistic usage of cavalry. Notable figures during this period include Jeanne d'Arc, Bertrand du Guesclin, John Talbot, Edward the Black Prince, Henry IV the victor of Agincourt, and many more.
The Warring States of Japan is an umbrella term that covers a 150 years long period of japanese history, starting with the Ōnin War in 1465 with the birth of Ashikaga Yoshihisa and ending with the death of Toyotomi Hideyori in 1615. During this period the government of Japan was severely weakened, which allowed state governors or dukes known as daimyō to gain an unprecedented level of independence. This had the unavoidable consequence of hindering the government's ability to curtail their growing ambition which led to many wars over the control of territories and personal feuds. Notable figures during this period include Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Sanada Yukimura, Takeda Shingen, Uesugi Kenshin and many more.
The Russo-Ukrainian War is an ongoing conflict since 2014 and was triggered by a coup-d'état that saw the pro-russian president, Viktor Yanukovych, ousted from his position and the resoluteness of the government that took his place to pursue closer ties with the European Union and the United States. Given NATO's persistent expansion towards Russia's borders through the years, which allows the americans in particular to deploy their military assets inside any member country, as well as the central role the american government played in the overthrow of president Yanukovych, Vladimir Putin ordered on February 24 2022 the invasion of Ukraine that he labeled as a special military operation. Russia's main objectives are to assimilate the Donbas region (and probably more) and to overthrow what it views as an illegitimate and oppressive ukrainian government. Notable figures during this period include Vladimir Putin, Volodymyr Zelenskyy, Sergei Shoigu, Yevgeny Prigozhin, Valerii Zaluzhnyi, Kyrylo Budanov, Denys Prokopenko, Mykyta Nadtochiy and many more.