The Macedonian Succession Wars, more commonly referred to as the Wars of the Diadochi, were a series of conflicts fought among the former companions and generals of Alexander the Great after his death, from 322 to 281 BCE. By the end of Alexander's life, these influential and powerful figures were promised, by virtue of their ranks as well as their deeds and personal relationships with their king, positions of power and prestige that only Alexander himself or his heir could grant them. However, Alexander's son was not yet born, and his brother had a mental disability that made him unsuitable to inherit Alexander's empire. As a result, Alexander's generals had to appoint themselves to the positions they coveted, and without a legitimate or capable figure of authority to lead them, they eventually either acted on their ambitions and lust for power or defended themselves against belligerent rivals and former brothers-in-arms. This ultimately led to the disintegration of Alexander's empire. Notable figures during this period include Craterus, Seleucus, Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Eumenes, Pyrrhus and many more.
The Punic Wars outline a period characterised by three separate conflicts opposing Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE. The casus belli for the first war was hegemony over Sicily and the casus belli of the following two wars was hegemony over the Mediterranean Sea. Rome won all three wars, even though both Rome and Carthage losses were colossal. Despite this detriment, the conclusion of the Punic Wars laid the foundation of the Roman Empire. Notable figures during this period include Hannibal Barca, Scipio Africanus, Gaius Marius, Xanthippus and many more.
The Three Kingdoms of China is a period marked by intense civil and military conflicts, as well as radical socio-political reforms. It can be divided into three phases: the Fall of the Han Dynasty from 184 to 220, the Rise of Three Kingdoms from 220 to 263, and the Fall of the Three Kingdoms from 263 to 280. After decades of civil war and widespread government corruption and neglect, warlords began to rise to prominence and to pursue their ambitions to the detriment of the Han government, ultimately leading to its fall. Notable figures during this period include Cao Cao, Sun Quan, Liu Bei, Sima Yi, Zhuge Liang, Guan Yu, and many more.